The Battle of Vouillé, 507 CE. Where France Began

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With Amalaric's death in , the Visigothic kingdom entered an extended period of unrest which lasted until Leovigild assumed the throne in In religion Alaric was an Arian , like all the early Visigothic nobles, but he mitigated the persecution policy of his father Euric toward the Catholics and authorized them to hold in the council of Agde.

He was on uneasy terms with the Catholic bishops of Arelate as epitomized in the career of the Frankish Caesarius, bishop of Arles , appointed bishop in Caesarius was suspected of conspiring with the Burgundians, whose king had married the sister of Clovis, to assist the Burgundians capture Arles. Alaric exiled him for a year to Bordeaux in Aquitania allowed him to return unharmed when the crisis had passed. Alaric displayed similar wisdom in political affairs by appointing a commission headed by the referendary Anianus to prepare an abstract of the Roman laws and imperial decrees, which would form the authoritative code for his Roman subjects; this is known as the Breviarium Alaricianum or Breviary of Alaric.

The Montagne d'Alaric near Carcassonne is named after the Visigoth king. Narbonne Narbonne is a commune in southern France in the Occitanie region. It lies km from Paris in the Aude department, it is located about 15 km from the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and was a prosperous port, but declined from the 14th century following a change in the course of the Aude River. It is marginally the largest commune in Aude, although the prefecture is the smaller commune of Carcassonne.


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Narbonne is linked to the nearby Canal du Midi and the Aude River by the Canal de la Robine , which runs through the centre of town, it is close to the A9 motorway, which connects Montpellier and Nimes to Perpignan and, across the border, to Barcelona in Spain. There is a recently-renovated train station which serves the TGV to Spain and Calais , which in turn connects to the Eurostar ; the source of the town's original name of Narbo is lost in antiquity, it may have referred to an Iron Age hillfort close to the location of the current settlement or its occupants.

In ancient inscriptions the name is sometimes rendered in Latin and sometimes translated into Iberian as Nedhena. Narbonne in its current location was established in Gaul by the Romans in BC, as Colonia Narbo Martius, colloquially Narbo, it was located on the Via Domitia , the first Roman road in Gaul, built at the time of the foundation of the colony, connecting Italy to Spain.

Geographically, Narbonne was therefore located at a important crossroads because it was situated where the Via Domitia connected to the Via Aquitania , which led toward the Atlantic through Tolosa and Burdigala. In addition, it was crossed by the Aude River.

Politically, Narbonne gained importance as a competitor to Massalia. Julius Caesar settled veterans from his 10th Legion there and attempted to develop its port while Marseille was supporting Pompey.

Battles involving Francia

Among the amenities of Narbonne, its rosemary-flower honey was famous among Romans. The province of Transalpine Gaul was renamed Gallia Narbonensis after the city, which became its capital. Seat of a powerful administration, the city enjoyed architectural expansion. At that point, the city is thought to have had 30,—50, inhabitants, may have had as many as , According to Hydatius , in the city was handed over to the Visigoths by a local military leader in exchange for support, as a result Roman rule ended in the city, it was subsequently the capital of the Visigothic province of Septimania , the only territory from Gaul to fend off the Frankish thrust after the Battle of Vouille.

The Carolingian Pepin the Short conquered Narbonne from the Arabs in after which it became part of the Carolingian Viscounty of Narbonne , he invited, according to Christian sources, prominent Jews from the Caliphate of Bagdad to settle in Narbonne and establish a major Jewish learning center for Western Europe. In the 12th century, the court of Ermengarde of Narbonne presided over one of the cultural centers where the spirit of courtly love was developed.

In the 11th and 12th centuries, Narbonne was home to an important Jewish exegetical school, which played a pivotal role in the growth and development of the Zarphatic and Shuadit languages. Jews had settled in Narbonne from about the 5th century, with a community that had risen to in the 12th century. At this time, Narbonne was mentioned in Talmudic works in connection with its scholars. One source, Abraham ibn Daud of Toledo , gives them an importance similar to the exilarchs of Babylon.

In the 12th and 13th centuries, the community went through a series of ups and downs before settling into extended decline. Narbonne itself fell for a variety of reasons. One was due to a change in the course of the Aude River , which caused increased silting of the navigational access; the river, known as the Atax in ancient times, had always had two main courses which split close to Salelles. The Romans had improved the navigability of the river by building a dam near Salelles and by canalising the river as it passed through its marshy delta to the sea A major flood in swept the dam away.

The Aude river had a long history of overflowing its banks; when it was a bustling port, the distance from the coast was 5 to 10 km, but at that time the access to the sea was deep enough when the river was in full spate which made communication between port and city unreliable. However, goods could be transported by land and in shallow barges from the ports The changes to the long seashore which resulted from the silting up of the series of graus or openings which were interspersed between the islands which made up the shoreline had a more serious impact th.

Vienne river The Vienne is one of the most important rivers in south-western France.

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It is a significant left tributary of the lower Loire , it supports numerous hydro-electric dams , it is the main river of the northern part of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region. It flows west to the city of Limoges where it once played a major role in the famous Limoges porcelain industry. A little way after Limoges it takes a turn to the north. En route to its confluence with the Loire, the Vienne is joined by the rivers Clain.

Franks The Franks were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine , on the edge of the Roman Empire.

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The term was associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Roman Empire, who commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine , they imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, still they were given recognition by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire. Although the Frankish name does not appear until the 3rd century, at least some of the original Frankish tribes had long been known to the Romans under their own names, both as allies providing soldiers and as enemies; the new name first appears when their allies were losing control of the Rhine region.

The Franks were first reported as working together to raid Roman territory, but from the beginning these raids were associated with attacks upon them from outside their frontier area, by the Saxons , for example, with the desire of frontier tribes to move into Roman territory with which they had had centuries of close contact. Frankish peoples inside Rome's frontier on the Rhine river were the Salian Franks who from their first appearance were permitted to live in Roman territory, the Ripuarian or Rhineland Franks who, after many attempts conquered the Roman frontier city of Cologne and took control of the left bank of the Rhine.

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In a period of factional conflict in the s and s, Childeric I , a Frank, was one of several military leaders commanding Roman forces with various ethnic affiliations in Roman Gaul. Childeric and his son Clovis I faced competition from the Roman Aegidius as competitor for the "kingship" of the Franks associated with the Roman Loire forces; this new type of kingship inspired by Alaric I , represents the start of the Merovingian dynasty, which succeeded in conquering most of Gaul in the 6th century, as well as establishing its leadership over all the Frankish kingdoms on the Rhine frontier.

It was on the basis of this Merovingian empire that the resurgent Carolingians came to be seen as the new Emperors of Western Europe in In the Middle Ages , the term Frank came to be used as a synonym for Western European, as the Carolingian Franks were rulers of most of Western Europe, established a political order, the basis of the European ancien regime that only ended with the French revolution.

Western Europeans shared their allegiance to the Roman Catholic church and worked as allies in the Crusades beyond Europe in the Levant , where they still referred to themselves and the Principalities they established as Frankish; this has had a lasting impact on names for Western Europeans in many languages. From the beginning the Frankish kingdoms were politically and divided between an eastern Frankish and Germanic part, the western part that the Merovingians had founded on Roman soil; the eastern Frankish kingdom came to be seen as the new " Holy Roman Empire ", was from early times called " Germany ".

Within "Frankish" Western Europe itself, it was the original Merovingian or " Salian " Western Frankish kingdom, founded in Roman Gaul and speaking Romance languages, which has continued until today to be referred to as " France " - a name derived directly from the Franks.


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  4. The name Franci was not a tribal name, but within a few centuries it had eclipsed the names of the original peoples who constituted it. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm , the name of the Franks has been linked with the English adjective "frank" meaning "free". There have been proposals that Frank comes from the Germanic word for "javelin". Words in other Germanic languages meaning "fierce", "bold" or "insolent", may be significant. Eumenius addressed the Franks in the matter of the execution of Frankish prisoners in the circus at Trier by Constantine I in and certain other measures: Latin : Ubi nunc est illa ferocia?

    History of Battle - The Battle of Mantinea (362 BCE)

    Ubi semper infida mobilitas?. Latin: Feroces was used to describe the Franks. Contemporary definitions of Frankish ethnicity vary both by point of view. A formulary written by Marculf about AD described a continuation of national identities within a mixed population when it stated that "all the peoples who dwell, Romans and those of other nations, live Writing in , Professor Christopher Wickham pointed out that "the word'Frankish' ceased to have an exclusive ethnic connotation.

    North of the River Loire everyone seems to have been considered a Frank by the mid-7th century at the latest. Apart from the more respected History of the Franks by Gregory of Tours , two more colourful early sources that describe the origin of the Franks are a 7th-century work known as the Chronicle of Fredegar and the anonymous Liber Historiae Francorum , written a century later; the author of the Chronicle of Fredegar claimed that the Franks came from Troy and quoted the works of Vergil and Hieronymous, the Franks are mentioned in those works, by Hieronymous.

    The chronicle describes Priam as a Frankish king whose people migrated to Macedonia after the fall of Troy. In Macedonia, the Franks divided; the Eur. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Campaigns of Clovis I. Ralph W. Categories : s conflicts Battles involving Francia Battles involving the Visigoths 6th century in Francia. Hidden categories: Coordinates not on Wikidata. Revision History.

    Battle of Tolbiac. Related Images. YouTube Videos. The political divisions of Gaul at the inception of Clovis 's career Note that only the Burgundian kingdom and the province of Septimania remained unconquered at his death Theodoric I by Fabrizio Castello — Visigothic pseudo-imperial gold tremissis in the name of emperor Justinian I , 6th century: the Christian cross on the breast defines the Visigothic attribution.

    British Museum. The Franks were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Aristocratic Frankish burial items from the Merovingian period. A 19th century depiction of different Franks AD — Detail of the Tabula Peutingeriana , showing Francia at the top. A 6th-7th century necklace of glass and ceramic beads with a central amethyst bead.

    Similar necklaces have been found in the graves of Frankish women in the Rhineland. The Visigoths were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths. Migrations of the main column of the Visigoths. An illustration of Alaric entering Athens in Belt buckle. Gilt and silvered bronze and glass paste, Visigothic Aquitaine, 6th century. The Baptism of Constantine painted by Raphael 's pupils —, fresco , Vatican City, Apostolic Palace ; Eusebius of Caesarea records that Constantine delayed receiving baptism until shortly before his death.

    Follis with Maurice in consular uniform. France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse — approximately 18, BC. Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar during the Battle of Alesia. The Gallic defeat in the Gallic Wars secured the Roman conquest of the country.

    With Clovis 's conversion to Catholicism in , the Frankish monarchy , elective and secular until then, became hereditary and of divine right. Toulouse is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie. Vomitorium at the Roman amphitheatre in Toulouse. The Capitole de Toulouse , Toulouse's city hall, is an example of the 18th-century architectural projects in the city. It lies km from Paris in the Aude department, of which it is a sub-prefecture.

    It is located about 15 km 9. Painting of Baptism of Clovis, ivory book cover, 9th century. Anastasius I was Byzantine Emperor from to He made his career as a government administrator. He came to the throne in his sixties after being chosen by the wife of his predecessor, Zeno. Solidus of Emperor Anastasius. The Barberini ivory , a 6th-century ivory diptych representing either Anastasius or Justinian I. Military campaigns around the Pyrenees and Septimania. The Battle of Tolbiac was fought between the Franks, who were fighting under Clovis I, and the Alamanni, whose leader is not known.

    Soldiers of Gaul, as imagined by a late 19th-century illustrator for the Larousse dictionary , It is a significant left tributary of the lower Loire. It supports numerous hydro-electric dams, and it is the main river of the northern part of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region. The Vienne in wooded landscape near Peyrelevade, close to its source on the Millevaches Massif. The Franco-Visigothic Wars were a series of wars between the Franks and the Visigoths, but it also involved the Burgundians, the Ostrogoths, and the Romans.

    It lies in present-day southwest France, where it gives its name to the modern region of Aquitaine. A ring depicting Alaric II. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France. It is a commune and the capital of the Vienne department and also of the Poitou. Poitiers is a major university centre. Pericles was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during its golden age — specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.

    Bust of Pericles bearing the inscription "Pericles, son of Xanthippus, Athenian". Marble, Roman copy after a Greek original from c. Aspasia of Miletus c. Anaxagoras and Pericles by Augustin-Louis Belle — The sovereign is a gold coin of the United Kingdom, with a nominal value of one pound sterling. Ruff, G. Wieland, and R. Arthur Turnhout Yeager, Toronto Davis Ashgate John Marenbon Cambridge Calder III zum 75 Geburtstag ed.

    Battle of Vouillé

    Heilen, R. Kirstein, et al. Hildesheim Harich-Schwarzbauer and P. Cain and N. Lenski Ashgate Vessey Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell Eleanor Dickey and Anna Chahoud Cambridge Jaeger, ed. Mathisen and D. Shanzer De Gruyter Fuhrer, eds. Hieronymus als Exeget und Theologe. With Daniela E. Wien: Phoibos Verlag, Ziolkowski, eds.

    Reviews: 1. Review of C. Review of M. Review of R. Herzog, ed. Athens and London in Envoi 2. Review of Latin vulgaire-latin tardif. Bonn in Gnomon 64 Speculum Review of P.

    Battle of Vouillé

    Review of George W. Review of S. Review of A. Review of Dennis E.